Chinese embroidery, also known as silk embroidery or needle embroidery, is one of the outstanding national traditional crafts in China. China is the first country in the world to discover and use silk. People have started raising silkworms and reeling silk 4,000 to 5,000 years ago. This article introduces 12 kinds of Chinese embroidery art.
Chinese Embroidery Art: Hunan Embroidery
The handmade silk thread embroidery with Changsha as the center is one of the four famous embroidery in China. Hunan embroidery has a long history. Chu embroidery of Warring States period and Han Embroidery of Western Han Dynasty were unearthed in Changsha. Xiang embroidery is mainly composed of mixed needles. Different needling methods are applied according to different images and different parts of the body, which makes the images more real and three-dimensional. The local characteristics of realistic embroidery surface, bright colors and simple style are gradually formed. Lions and tigers are the traditional products of Xiang embroidery.
Chinese Embroidery Art: Yue Embroidery
Yue embroidery is the general name of Guangdong embroidery art, one of the four famous embroidery in China. It includes two schools, “Guangzhou Embroidery” centered on Guangzhou and “Huzhou Embroidery” represented by Huzhou. It has a neatly composed, rich and colorful local style, especially the technique of leaving a waterway (the pattern transfers and overlaps with a line of embroidered ground). Guangdong embroidery wins with elegance, flat gold embroidery method, appropriate brocade, slightly elegant colors. Huzhou embroidery pays attention to the effect, the color is magnificent, and the embroidery is made like a relief by using various techniques such as nails, pads, pasting, and stitching.
Chinese Embroidery Art: Sichuan Embroidery
Handmade silk embroidery with Chengdu as the production center is one of the four famous embroidery in China. Sichuan embroidery was famous all over the world as early as the Han Dynasty. Sichuan embroidery has the advantages of neat needling, fine and thick silk thread, smooth and precise stitch, and gorgeous color. There are more than 30 kinds of needling.
Chinese Embroidery Art: Suzhou Embroidery
Suzhou embroidery, originated in Wuxian, Suzhou, is still centered around Suzhou. It has spread to Yangzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, Suqian, Dongtai and other places in Jiangsu Province. Jiangsu Province is the origin of Suzhou embroidery. According to Shuoyuan written by Liu Xiang in the Western Han Dynasty, Su embroidery was used in clothing in the state of Wu as early as 2000 years ago in the spring and Autumn period.
During the Three Kingdoms period, Sun Quan, the king of Wu, ordered Zhao Da’s sister to hand embroider the painting of kingdoms. According to qingmishang, Suzhou embroidery is “the embroidery of Song Dynasty people, with fine and dense stitches, one or two threads, and fine needles. The colors are exquisite and brilliant. ” It can be seen that Suzhou embroidery has reached a high level in Song Dynasty.
Chinese Embroidery Art: Beijing Embroidery
Beijing embroidery, also known as “palace embroidery” in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, began to be used in the prosperous period. Beijing embroidery is famous for its exquisite materials, exquisite technology and elegant style. Generally, good silk and satin are used as the fabric, with bright embroidery thread. The color is similar to the pastel and enamel color in porcelain. In addition, gold and silver thread twisted by hammering foil of gold and silver are also widely used. Most of the treasures of Beijing embroidery are made by male craftsmen, which is the obvious difference between “palace embroidery” and “boudoir embroidery”.
Chinese Embroidery Art: Qin Embroidery
Qin embroidery is centered on Xi’an area. Qin embroidery is a new kind of embroidery based on “Nasha embroidery” which was innovated and completed in the 1970s. Its colors are unrestrained, idealistic, passionate, bold and exaggerated, and it is good at using primary colors. Among them, the strong contrast of blue, red, yellow, black and white is common, especially red.
Chinese Embroidery Art: Jin Embroidery
Jin embroidery is an ancient traditional folk handicraft in Shanxi Province, which has local characteristics. The main needling methods include long and short needling, looping, missing needling and winding needling. Embroidery has a strong sense of three-dimensional, full and heavy visual effect. Jin embroidery is mainly represented by palace embroidery, insoles and tiger head gourd.
Chinese Embroidery Art: Bian Embroidery
Bian embroidery is the general name of Henan embroidery centered on Kaifeng, also known as Song embroidery, with a history of about 800 years. Contemporary Bian embroidery inherits the theme and craft characteristics of Song embroidery, absorbs the local flavor of Henan folk embroidery, and innovates a large number of stitches on this basis. It is famous all over the world for embroidering famous Chinese paintings and ancient paintings. The embroidery technique is exquisite and delicate, the embroidery colors are simple and elegant, the layers are distinct, and the image is vivid.
Chinese Embroidery Art: Ou Embroidery
Ou embroidery is a local traditional art in Wenzhou, Zhejiang. Because Wenzhou is located on the shore of the Ou River, it is also known as “Wenzhou embroidery”. It began in the Tang Dynasty and flourished in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The production method is to scrape off the green skin of bamboo, and then weave it into a bamboo curtain through layered pieces, boiled and threaded, and then use paint and colored threads to make a work on it. There are more than 20 types of needle methods, such as broken needles, needle rolling, and random needles. The content of Ou Embroidery includes characters, animals, landscapes and scenery, etc., especially characters.
Chinese Embroidery Art: Hangzhou Embroidery
Hangzhou embroidery, also known as Ji embroidery, originated in the Han Dynasty and reached its peak in the Southern Song Dynasty. Hangzhou embroidery artists are mainly male workers. Therefore, the rule of accepting only male workers but not female workers and passing on only daughter-in-law but not daughter-in-law was formed in the industry, which was followed until the Republic of China and became a major feature of Hangzhou embroidery. Most of the designs of Hangzhou embroidery are based on the popular traditional patterns such as dragon, Phoenix, unicorn, bat, peacock, peony, peach, Ruyi, Bagua and West Lake scenery.
Chinese Embroidery Art: Gu Embroidery
Gu embroidery is not the embroidery of a region, but the name of Gu’s wife who was good at embroidery in the late Ming Dynasty. Gu embroidery presents a culture and a work of art. The silk thread and base materials used in Gu’s embroidery are all of the best quality. As a copy of the calligraphy and painting of the Tang and Song Dynasties, one of them is also very expensive. However, Gu’s children and grandchildren “have to choose the best quality in many ways to take care of their daily life.”. Later, when Gu’s family declined and their descendants had no support, they commercialized Gu embroidery and recruited female embroidery workers.
Chinese Embroidery Art: Ethnic Embroidery
China has a vast territory. In addition to the Han nationality, there are 55 ethnic minorities living all over the country. Embroidery is also widely popular among ethnic minorities. Miao, Yao, Dong, Zhuang, Tu, Qiang, Yi, Bai, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongolian and Uyghur all have their own unique embroidery art. Most of the ethnic minorities decorate their clothes and daily necessities with exquisite patterns, coordinated colors and exquisite embroidery. It is not only practical, but also highly ornamental and of high artistic value.